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Clamator glandarius

ADW: Clamator glandarius: INFORMATIO

  1. This may be used to attract females. However, the female produces a bubbling or chuckling sound burroo, burroo. Both the male and female produce a high pitched alarm note chick-chick-chick. When harassed, C. glandarius generate a great variety of clucks, croaks, grunts, chattering, and quacking sounds in shorts bursts (Rowan, 1983). Futhermore, in Zimbabwe, the Great Spotted Cuckoo is one of several supposed rain birds
  2. Kukačka chocholatá (Clamator glandarius) je druh kukačky z rodu Clamator. Vyskytuje se v Africe a ve Středomoř
  3. The Great Spotted Cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes, which also includes the roadrunners, the anis and the coucals. Source: Wikipedia ( 0 votes
  4. Clamator is a genus of large brood-parasitic cuckoos with crests and graduated tails. The genus was erected by German naturalist Johann Jakob Kaup in 1829 with the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) as the type species. The name Clamator is Latin for shouter from clamare, to shout. There are four species
  5. Der Häherkuckuck (Clamator glandarius) ist ein Kuckucksvogel, der vom Mittelmeerraum bis in den Süden Afrikas vorkommt. Der Häherkuckuck ist ein Brutparasit, der seine Jungen meist von Rabenvögeln großziehen lässt

Kukačka chocholatá - Wikipedi

Clamator glandarius (Great Spotted Cuckoo) - Avibas

Clamator - Wikipedi

  1. CLAMATOR. ( Cuculidae; † Great Spotted Cuckoo C. glandarius) L. clamator, clamatoris shouter < clamare to shout; Schlüsse: Cuculus glandarius kann als europäischer Vogel nicht ausgeführt werden, da sich weder Glieder über noch unter ihm nachweisen lassen; auch scheint er gar nicht in die Gattung Kuckuk zu gehören, sondern eine eigene zu bilden,.
  2. The Great Spotted Cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes, which also includes the roadrunners, the anis and the coucals. Source: Wikipedi
  3. Recommended citation BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Clamator glandarius. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/08/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds
  4. For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern. BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Clamator glandarius. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/07/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds
  5. (Clamator glandarius) El aspecto más llamativo de la biología del críalo es su estrategia reproductora, basada en la parasitación de nidos de córvidos, sobre todo urracas. Ave de aspecto característico, gárrulo canto y hábitos migradores, este cucúlido es capaz de alimentarse casi en exclusiva de orugas de todo tipo, incluso las que están protegidas por sustancias tóxicas o pelos urticantes
  6. o canto do cuco É talvez o mais conhecido de todos os que se podem ouvir no nosso territÓrio e anuncia a chegada da primavera
  7. IOC Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Subphylum: Vertebrata • Infraphylum: Gnathostomata • Superclassis: Tetrapoda • Classis: Aves • Superordo: Neognathae • Ordo: Cuculiformes • Familia: Cuculidae • Genus: Clamator • Species: Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758

Häherkuckuck - Wikipedi

Clamator glandarius ye una especie d'ave cuculiforme de la familia Cuculidae qu'habita nel sur d'Europa y Próximu Oriente pel branu y que pasa l'iviernu n'África.Como'l so pariente'l cuquiellu practica'l parasitismu de puesta nos niales d'aves como les pegues y los estorninos.Nun se conocen subespecies The great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) is one of the classical models in the study of brood parasitism, however, there is very little information on its migratory strategy, route and wintering grounds. Furthermore, there is no previous information on the geographical distribution of mortality and its causes in this species; information. Comme tous les ans sur le secteur du Pic St Loup, (et cette fois 3j d'avance: le 5 au lieu du 8), revoilà notre couple de coucou-geai... Quelques images tou..

Video: Cuco real - Wikipedia, a enciclopedia libr

Clamator es un género de aves cuculiformes de la familia Cuculidae, que incluye cuatro especies comúnmente conocidas como críalos.Se distribuyen por buena parte de Asia, África y Europa.. Especies. Se reconocen cuatro especies del género Clamator: [1] [2] . Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) - críalo europeo; Clamator jacobinus (Boddaert, 1783) - críalo blanquinegr CLAMATOR (Cuculidae; † Great Spotted Cuckoo C. glandarius) L. clamator, clamatoris shouter < clamare to shout; Schlüsse: Cuculus glandarius kann als europäischer Vogel nicht ausgeführt werden, da sich weder Glieder über noch unter ihm nachweisen lassen; auch scheint er gar nicht in die Gattung Kuckuk zu gehören, sondern eine eigene zu bilden, welche ich Straußkuckuk Clamator nenne. Xeno-canto species ID: Clamator-glandarius ARKive ID: clamator-glandarius EPPO Code: CLAMGL iNaturalist taxon ID: 1787 NBN System Key: NHMSYS0000530300 eBird taxon ID: grscuc1 ADW taxon ID: Clamator_glandarius IRMNG ID: 11110756 BirdLife taxon ID: 2268381 Fiche d'identification : Coucou geai (Clamator glandarius) est un oiseau qui appartient à la famille des Cuculidés et à l'ordre des Cuculiformes

Clamator species Clamator glandarius Name Synonyms Cuculus glandarius Linnaeus, 1758 Homonyms Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) Common names Coucou geai in French Coucou geai in French Críalo in Spanish Críalo europeo in Spanis Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) Coucou geai ( Français ) Great Spotted Cuckoo (Anglais) (Chordata, Aves, Cuculiformes) Accéder aux 5129 données sur la répartition. Sources des 109 jeux de données. Espèce évaluée Espèce réglementée Espèce protégée Clamator glandarius: taxonomy/phylogenetic: Animal Diversity Web: 2 records from this provider: taxonomy/phylogenetic: AnimalBase: Clamator glandarius taxonomy: taxonomy/phylogenetic: Arctos Specimen Database: Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) taxonomy/phylogenetic: Encyclopedia of life: Show Biotic Interactions: taxonomy/phylogenetic.

Clamator glandarius Toolbox. Datasheet. Clamator glandarius Index. Identity Taxonomic Tree Natural enemy of Summary. Last modified; 19 November 2019; Datasheet Type(s) Natural Enemy; Preferred Scientific Name; Clamator glandarius Taxonomic Tree; Domain: Eukaryota. Kukavica chochlatá alebo kukučka chochlatá (Clamator glandarius) je druh vtáka z čeľade kukučkovité (Cuculidae).V Európe obýva Stredomorie, hniezdi hlavne v Španielsku.Do strednej Európy zalieta len náhodne, na Slovensku bola zistená iba dvakrát. Podľa Medzinárodnej únie na ochranu prírody a prírodných zdrojov kukavica chochlatá patrí medzi najmenej ohrozené druhy.

A FIGHT CONSTANTLY EVOLVING. There is a particular case, the strategy of the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) when is a parasite of the common magpie ( Pica pica ). The great spotted cuckoo lays an egg in the nest of common magpie and this chick possess adaptations to exploit the host parental care, it does not kill directly their. Cuco-rabilongoClamator glandarius. O cuco-rabilongo é relativamente grande. Distingue-se sobretudo pelo contraste. cuco-canoro. Os juvenis caracterizam-se ainda pelas manchas arruivadas nas asas. abundante. De uma forma geral, é mais frequente na metade interior do território e. mais comum no sul que no norte We used the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) as our model species because it is a long-distance migratory species 25,26 that has been intensively studied in their European breeding sites. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species

Clamator glandarius - Wikipedi

  1. An Clamator glandarius in uska species han Aves nga syahan ginhulagway ni Linnaeus hadton 1758. An Clamator glandarius in nahilalakip ha genus nga Clamator, ngan familia nga Cuculidae. Ginklasipika han IUCN an species komo diri gud kababarak-an. Waray hini subspecies nga nakalista. Mga kasarigan. 1.0 1.1; 4.0 4.1; Mga sumpay ha gawa
  2. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this species.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species like Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758
  3. Latinské slovo - clamator glandarius Překlad latinského slova clamator glandarius do českého jazyka, naleznete níže. Přesná shoda clamator glandarius - kukačka chocholatá clamator glandarius - kukačka jižní Rozšířená shoda clamator glandarius - kukačka chocholatá clamator glandarius - kukačka jižní Latinský slovník on-lin

Clamator glandarius Clamator. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window . This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms. The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree. Page: Tree of Life Clamator glandarius. Great Spotted Cuckoo. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media.

Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) Поширення C. glandarius Розмноження Проживання Не розмножується: Синоніми; Cuculus glandarius Linnaeus, 1758: Посиланн Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Free and Open Access to Biodiversity Data Distinctive, boldly patterned cuckoo. Typically restless, making short flights often, and hops on the ground with tail raised. Juveniles are even more contrasting than adults with a rusty wing panel and black crest. A nest parasite of magpies and other crow relatives (corvids). Found in semiarid open woodland and dry savannas. Noisy, often givin Clamator glandarius Linnaeus 1758 (Great spotted cuckoo). PaleoDB taxon number: 415660. Belongs to Clamator according to J. del Hoyo et al. 2014. Sister taxa: nonenon

Clamator glandarius Descrission. Ël Clamator glandarius a parassita osej gròss com chiel, normalment berte ma 'dcò cornajass. La fumela nen sempre a dësbela j'euv dla specie parassità, donca a peulo esse anlevà sia cit ëd coco che cit ëd berta

Clamator est un genre d'oiseaux de la famille des Cuculidae comprenant 4 espèces.On les trouve dans les régions chaudes du sud de l'Europe et de l'Asie et, en Afrique, au sud du Sahara.Ces oiseaux apprécient les habitats de broussailles ouvertes et chaudes, mais certaines espèces sont au moins en partie migratrices, laissant l'hiver leur habitat pour des régions plus chaudes et plus humides Search from Clamator Glandarius stock photos, pictures and royalty-free images from iStock. Find high-quality stock photos that you won't find anywhere else clamator-glandarius.pdf (current) mazeemik (disabled) 13 Sep 2016: 443 KB: application/pdf [] European Environment Agency, Kongens Nytorv 6, 1050 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Contact us Accessibility statement Disclaimer.

Clamator glandarius - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libr

Clamator glandarius with the common name Great Spotted Cuckoo, belongs to the Birds group it is geographically distrubuted among the following countries/areas: Bulgaria, Cyprus, Spain, France, Greece, Croatia, Italy, Macedonia (FYR), Portugal, Turke Duration of sympatry and coevolution between the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) and its primary host, the magpie (Pica pica). In: Rothstein SI, SK Robinson SK, editors. Parasitic Birds. Key words Brood parasitism Æ Clamator glandarius Æ Coevolution Æ Egg-damaging behaviour Æ Pica pica Introduction Avian brood-parasitic females frequently remove or damage one or more host eggs when laying their eggs (reviewed in Soler et al. 1997). Some brood-parasitic species, mainly of the genera Clamator and Molothrus Clamator: Espècie: Clamator glandarius Linnaeus, 1758: El cucut reial o cucut garser (Clamator glandarius) és un ocell de l'ordre dels cuculiformes. Morfologia. No hi ha dimorfisme sexual. La característica més ressortida rau en la presència d'un plomall erèctil grisenc, i el front i resta del capell, foscos

Clamator glandarius. Wikispecies . Proper noun . Clamator glandarius f. A taxonomic species within the family Cuculidae - the great spotted cuckoo. References . Gill, F. and Wright, M. (2006) Birds of the World: Recommended English Names, Princeton University Press, →ISBN The current genus Clamator was erected by German naturalist Johann Jakob Kaup in 1829 with the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) as the type species. The name is the Latin word for shouter from clamare, to shout. The specific epithet jacobinus and the English name Jacobin refer to the pied plumage which resembles the black and. Adult magpies Pica pica provide parasitic great spotted cuckoo Clamator glandarius nestlings with a diet very similar to that fed to their own chicks. In both naturally and experimentally parasitized nests, great spotted cuckoo chicks were fed at a higher rate than magpie chicks in the same nest. This preferential allocation of food by magpie parents to great spotted cuckoo chicks is. Clamator estas genro de grandaj kukoloj aŭ pli bone dirite birdoj de la familio de Kukoledoj.Estas kvar specioj: Tufkukolo, Clamator glandarius; Makulkukolo, Clamator jacobinus; Levaijanta kukolo, Clamator levaillantii; Avelflugila kukolo, Clamator coromandus; La kukoloj de la genro Clamator troviĝas en plej varmaj partoj de suda Eŭropo kaj Azio, kaj en Afriko sude de la Saharo How to say clamator glandarius in English? Pronunciation of clamator glandarius with 1 audio pronunciation and more for clamator glandarius

Coucou geai immature - cala191569Pescalune Photo: Coucou geai (Clamator glandarius), Great

Great Spotted Cuckoo Clamator glandarius in 1 st summer plumage observed on 23 May 2007 in Besaparski Hills (UTM KG86), southern central Bulgaria (photo: D. Gradinarov) Slika 2: ^opasta kukavica. Coccycua, Coccyzus, Phaenicophaeus, Piaya - 9 Cuculus - 9 or 10 Pachycoccyx, Clamator levaillantii, Centropus - 10 Microdynamis, Eudynamys, Clamator glandarius - 11 Some coucals - 12 Scythrops novaehollandiae - 13 The cuckoos have a cosmopolitan distribution, ranging across all the world's continents except Antarctica Great Spotted Cuckoo - Clamator glandarius. Spain - Badajoz (ES) 2012-05-29 Peter Logtmeijer Great Spotted Cuckoo - Clamator glandarius. Spain - Badajoz (ES) 2008-05-31 Jorrit Vlot Mobile apps. Use our free mobile apps to identify images and record your counts and observations.. Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) Kaliwatan sa pitupit ang Clamator glandarius. Una ning gihulagway ni Linnaeus ni adtong 1758. Ang Clamator glandarius sakop sa kahenera nga Clamator, ug kabanay nga pitupit. Giklaseklase sa IUCN ang kaliwatan sa kinaminosang kalabotan

Spotted Cuckoo Clamator glandarius Bernat Garcia Espluga1* & Miquel Àngel Garcia-Reàdigos1 The box-tree moth Cydalima perspectalis has become in recent years a highly invasive insect species in central and southern Europe, where it is now a devastating plague on both natural and ornamental stands of box trees Buxus sempervirens Genus: Clamator Species: Clamator glandarius. Име [редактиране] Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) Original combination: Cuculus glandarius; Местни имена [редактиране spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius), for which there is indirect evidence of territorial behaviour (Arias de Reyna et al. 1987), but multiple parasitism is common (Soler et al. 1994). Also, it has been shown using genetic methods that multiple parasitism is due both to the same female laying two or more eggs in a nest and to di•eren Le Coucou geai (Clamator glandarius) est une espèce d'oiseau de la famille des Cuculidae. C'est une espèce monotypique (non subdivisée en sous-espèces ). Sommair

Pied-Crested Cuckoo (Clamator jacobinus) | Pet birds

Latinské slovo - clamator Překlad latinského slova clamator do českého jazyka, naleznete níže. Přesná shoda clamator - křikloun clamator - kukačka clamator - tlachal Rozšířená shoda clamator - křikloun clamator - kukačka clamator glandarius - kukačka chocholatá clamator glandarius - kukačka jižní clamator cafer - kukačka. Críalo europeo (Clamator glandarius) Entorno Meaques Retamares. July 3 · Críalo europeo . Es una especie que suele poner sus huevos en nidos de urracas, para que sean incubados y alimentados éstas. En el Entorno vienen todos los años a parasitar sus nidos. En el documento gráfico se puede ver a los pollos de críalo ya fuera del nido Clamator glandarius: lt;div|> | | | Great Spotted Cuckoo || | | || | | From |Etosha National Park| || | | |Conserv... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of. Information and photos of the Great spotted cuckoo fam:Cuckoos (Clamator glandarius, Cuculidae) on nature-guide.info and app Cuckoo Clamator glandarius is relatively well known, this information has been largely neglected in the stud-ies of the evolution of brood parasitism (Hamilton and Orians 1965, Payne 1977, Zahavi 1979), perhaps be-cause the majority of papers are not in English (Val-verde 1953, Frisch and Frisch 1967, L6veque 1968

Kukułka czubata - Wikipedia, wolna encyklopedi

Clamator glandarius: pictures (1) Species Clamator jacobinus Jacobin cuckoo. Clamator jacobinus: pictures (1) Species Clamator levaillantii Levaillant's cuckoo. ADW Pocket Guides on the iOS App Store! The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides and gene flow rates of the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) and its main host in Europe, the magpie (Pica pica), in a number of populations (seven and 15, respectively) across their distribution range in Europe. The genetic analysis shows that there exists a pattern of isolation by distance in both species, although the cuckoo data. Clamator glandarius. Cuco-rabilongo,Clamator glandarius , Great Spotted Cuckoo from Jose Viana on Vimeo. Para saber mais informações sobre esta espécie clique aqui. Para ver outros vídeos clique aqui. Comendo algumas formigas-de-asa na berma da estrada.. § Clamator glandarius: Hitta fler artiklar om fåglar med . Fågelportalen. Skatgök [2] (Clamator glandarius) är en sydeuropeisk och afrikansk gök. [3] Den är häckningsparasit som lägger sina ägg hos speciellt skator. I Sverige är den en mycket sällsynt gäst. Utseende.

Coucou geai — Wikipédi

Kúkavice ali kúkavičarji (znanstveno ime Cuculiformes) so red ptic, v katerega po sodobni klasifikaciji uvrščamo le družino kukavic (Cuculidae).. Na Slovenskem sta prisotni dve vrsti kukavic, (navadna) kukavica (Cuculus canorus) in čopasta kukavica (Clamator glandarius), gnezdi pa le navadna, ki je tu splošno razširjena. Opis. Večinoma so vitki ptiči srednje velikosti A Clamator a madarak osztályának kakukkalakúak (Cuculiformes) rendjébe, valamint a kakukkfélék (Cuculidae) családjába és a valódi kakukkformák (Cuculinae) alcsaládjába tartozó nem. Clamator; (Clamator glandarius) szarkakakukk (Clamator jacobinus vagy Oxylophus jacobinus Clamator - rodzaj ptaka z podrodziny kukułek (Cuculinae) w rodzinie kukułkowatych (Cuculidae).. Zasięg występowania. Rodzaj obejmuje gatunki występujące w Eurazji i Afryce.. Morfologia. Długość ciała 34-46 cm; masa ciała 66-141 g.. Systematyka Etymologia. Clamator: łac. clamator, clamatoris krzykacz, od clamare krzyczeć. Edolius: epitet gatunkowy Cuculus edolius. Great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius) preferentially parasitize large magpie nests and sexual selection for large nests is thus opposed by natural selection due to brood parasitism. Consistent with the hypothesized opposing selection pressures, in a comparative analysis of 14 magpie populations in Europe we found that nest volume was.

Coucou geai - Clamator glandarius (Great Spotted Cuckoo

Clamator - Wikipédi

In this way,Clamator retains a long tail all through the period of complete moult. All flight-feathers and the body plumage are replaced in the adults in the same span of time. The complete moult may last about 100 days inClamator glandarius. The young birds begin to moult all juvenal feathers before being about 6 months old A pettyes kakukk más néven szajkókakukk (Clamator glandarius) a madarak osztályának kakukkalakúak (Cuculiformes) rendjébe, ezen belül a kakukkfélék (Cuculidae) családjába tartozó faj Előfordulása. Európa és Ázsia déli részén és Afrika északi részén honos. Telelni Afrika. Find clamator glandarius stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day Great Spotted Cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) is a species of bird in the Cuculidae family. Subspecific information monotypic species. Foreign names . Coucou geai, Críalo europeo, cuco-rabilongo, Häherkuckuck, pettyes kakukk, Kuifkoekoek, Cuculo dal ciuffo, skatgök, Skjæregjøk Spatial patterns of egg laying and multiple parasitism in a brood parasite: a non-territorial system in the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) Oecologia . 1998 Nov;117(1-2):286-294. doi: 10.1007/s004420050660

Great Spotted Cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) – Planet of Birds

Clamator Photos and Premium High Res Pictures - Getty Image

Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) Afbeeldingen op Wikimedia Commons: Kuifkoekoek op Wikispecies: Portaal Biologie Vogels: De kuifkoekoek (Clamator glandarius) is een lid van de familie van de koekoeken. Het is de grootste in Europa voorkomende koekoek. Kenmerken. De rug is grijsbruin met witte vlekken, terwijl de onderzijde vaalwit is.. Еще значения слова и перевод CLAMATOR GLANDARIUS с английского на русский язык в англо-русских словарях и с русского на английский язык в русско-английских словарях. More meanings of this word and English-Russian, Russian.

Cuc pestrițThe Great Trip, Little Bustard and Lammergeier - Birding

Great Spotted Cuckoo - Clamator glandarius - Birds of the

Slika:Great Spotted Cuckoo (Clamator glandarius), Viseus, Alentejo, Portugal (33804379678).jp Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) Animalia Chordata Vertebrata Aves Neornithes Cuculiformes Cuculi Cuculidae Clamator glandarius Great Spotted Cucko Хохлатая кукушка (Clamator glandarius) фото птицы on dibird.com. Гнездятся в Africa, Eurasia: s Europe through AF; можно увидеть в 104 странах Listen to music from Clamator glandarius. Find the latest tracks, albums, and images from Clamator glandarius (clamator glandarius ) Salreu Estarreja Portugal This site uses cookies to improve your experience and to help show content that is more relevant to your interests

Cuckoo - Wikipedia

Clamator glandarius skin (dry) [no specific locality data] Asia: Palestine; 3/1886 (1886-03-01 - 1886-03-31) BerkeleyMapper Use ctrl+scroll wheel on your mouse or double click to zoom in on the map to see coordinate uncertainty Críalo europeo - Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) Juan José Soler Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas (CSIC) Versión 17-05-2016 Versiones anteriores: 20-08-2003; 1-12-2003; 27-06-2005; 27-02-2007; 6-03-2008; 12-07-2012 . Soler, J. J. (2016). Críalo europeo - Clamator glandarius. En: Enciclopedia Virtual de los Vertebrados. ro de especies parasitadas. El Críalo (Clamator glandarius), pertene-. ciente a la familia de los cucúlidos, ha sido. tradicionalmente considerado como un pa-. rásito especialista. siendo la. Statut de protection de Clamator glandarius (Coucou geai) : évaluation sur liste rouge, réglementations nationales et internationales, législation et textes juridiques (CITES, Journal Officiel Français et Européen)